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Average copper content of ground oil-treated Scots pine wood samples (test A, 8 hour oil treatment) after different fixation times of CFWP (first impregnation set with only sapwood)


Durchschnittliche Kupfermenge gemahlener, ölbehandelter Kiefernproben (Versuch A, 8-stündige Ölbehandlung) nach unterschiedlichenFixierungszeiten von CFWP (erstes Imprägnierungskollektiv mit ausschließlich Splintholz)

No significant statistical difference could be seen from the analysis data of copper content from wood samples including heartwood (40–70% sapwood). The copper content for all different fixation times was around 1.75 g Cu/kg dry wood for the wood samples including heartwood and around 3 g Cu/kg dry wood for the wood samples consisting only of sapwood.


Copper content analysed in oil gathered after 8 hours of oil treatment of Scots pine wood samples (test A) with different fixation times of CFWP; % and g/l indicates the copper content in oil and mg/m indicates the copper content in oil related to the surface of the treated samples, 0.0025% copper was detected in fresh oil


Analysierte Kupfermenge in Öl entnommen nach 8-stündiger Ölbehandlung von Kiefernproben (Versuch A) mit unterschiedlichen Fixierungszeiten von CFWP; % und g/l beschreibt den Kupferanteil im Öl und mg/m die Kupfermenge im Öl im Verhältnis zur Oberfläche der behandelten Proben, 0,0025% Kupfer wurde in frischem Öl analysiert

A higher copper content in oil was observed after treatment of impregnated sapwood samples not only due to the high amount of copper in sapwood samples, but also due to the increasing crack formation of the samples during the oil process which leads to a deeper oil penetration and thus to a higher leaching of copper. Cracks developed only on some sapwood samples but not on samples that included heartwood.

The copper content of the condensate water that was vaporising out of the samples during the oil process in the lab scale plant of test A and collected in condensate reservoir, is low and even not detectable for the condensate of samples which have 40–70% sapwood content. The condensate water of sapwood samples leached in oil that were CFWP-treated with a fixation time of 1 hour contained less copper than 0.013 g/l condensate or 50 mg/m 2 wood.

Open image in new window

Fixation degree (FD) of Scots pine samples after one, 24, 48, and 120 hours. The samples of test A were treated for 8 hours in hot oil in a lab scale plant. The samples of test B were treated for 2, 5, and 8 hours, respectively, in hot oil in a pilot plant, after a fixation time of 24 hours


Fixierungsgrad (FD) von Kiefernholzproben nach 24, 48 und 120 Stunden. Die Proben aus Versuch A wurden für 8 Stunden in heißem Öl in einer Laboranlage behandelt. Die Proben aus Versuch B wurden jeweils für 2, 5 und 8 Stunden in heißem Öl in einer Pilotanlage nach einer Fixierungszeit von 24 Stunden behandelt

The results of the amount of copper after different fixation times as well as the analysis of copper in oil and in condensate water gave an indication for the fixation time used later for trials in the pilot plant (test B).


The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of sex hormones with anthropometry in a large population-based cohort, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS)-based sex hormone measurements and imaging markers.

Study design/Main outcome measures

Cross-sectional data from 957 men and women from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were used. Associations of a comprehensive panel of LCMS-measured sex hormones with anthropometric parameters, laboratory, and imaging markers were analyzed in multivariable regression models for the full sample and stratified by sex. Sex hormone measures included total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), estrone and estradiol, androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Domains of anthropometry included physical measures (body-mass-index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height-ratio, waist-to-hip-ratio, and hip circumference), laboratory measures of adipokines (leptin and vaspin), and magnet resonance imaging-based measures (visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue).


In men, inverse associations between all considered anthropometric parameters with TT were found: BMI (β-coefficient, standard error (SE): -0.159, 0.037), waist-circumference (β-coefficient, SE: -0.892, 0.292), subcutaneous adipose tissue (β-coefficient, SE: -0.156, 0.023), and leptin (β-coefficient, SE: -0.046, 0.009). In women TT (β-coefficient, SE: 1.356, 0.615) and estrone (β-coefficient, SE: 0.014, 0.005) were positively associated with BMI. In analyses of variance, BMI and leptin were inversely associated with TT, ASD, and DHEAS in men, but positively associated with estrone. In women, BMI and leptin were positively associated with all sex hormones.


The present population-based study confirmed and extended previously reported sex-specific associations between sex hormones and various anthropometric markers of overweight and obesity.


Citation: Seyfart T, Friedrich N, Kische H, Bülow R, Wallaschofski H, Völzke H, et al. (2018) Association of sex hormones with physical, laboratory, and imaging markers of anthropometry in men and women from the general population. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0189042.

Editor: Petter Bjornstad, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, UNITED STATES

Received: June 13, 2017; Accepted: November 19, 2017; Published: January 11, 2018

Copyright: © 2018 Seyfart et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Salomon RX SLIDE 30 Walking sandals white/silver metallic dnSiihzHR6
, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data are available at . Data are third party, and given the standardized data application process of the central data transfer office, others would be able to access the data in the same manner as the authors. All other relevant data are within the paper.

Funding: SHIP is part of the Community Medicine Research net (CMR) of the University of Greifswald, Germany, which is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (grants no. 01ZZ9603, 01ZZ0103, and 01ZZ0403), the Ministry of Cultural Affairs as well as the Social Ministry of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


The ongoing obesity epidemic is considered as one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. WHO data reports more than 1.4 billion adults to be overweight and more than half a billion adults to be obese worldwide. Thus, obesity causes 2.8 million deaths per year [ New Look SCURVE High heeled ankle boots black PjX0E
]. Furthermore, the global prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008 [ 1 ]. In Germany, approximately 67% of men and 53% of women are overweight at present [ 2 ]. Between 1998 and 2011, the prevalence of overweight in Germany has not changed, whereas the prevalence of obesity has substantially risen, especially among men [ 2 ]. Previous investigations on health status of the German general population revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in north-east Germany, the study region of the present investigation [ Patricia Green Womens Abigail Espadrille SlipOn Fxd0gm4Rz

It is well known, that overweight and obesity are strongly associated with major risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality [ 4 ]. Also, previous cross-sectional observational studies reported significant associations of sex hormones with anthropometric measures including body-mass-index (BMI) and waist-to-hip-ratio [ 5 Nike Silver Mirror Sneakers 8ylpqu55
], as well as adipose tissue hormones such as leptin [ 8 ]. Additionally, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials showed changes in anthropometry in both men and women under hormone replacement therapy, such as a decrease in fat mass [ 9 , 10 ]. However, epidemiological studies to date were mostly sex-specific, or conducted within small, selected study samples only. Furthermore, sex hormones were routinely quantified by immunoassay, instead of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which offer only limited precision and specificity in the low concentration range in women, and thus further limiting the reliability of previous findings.

Therefore, we addressed these limitations by investigating a population-based cohort of men and women with a comprehensive panel of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-measured sex hormones, including total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (fT), estrone, estradiol, androstenedione (ASD), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in relation to different domains of anthropometry including physical measures such as BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-height-ratio, waist-to-hip-ratio, and hip circumference, laboratory measures such as adipose tissues cytokines leptin and vaspin, and magnet resonance imaging (MRI)-based measures such as visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

Data from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were used. SHIP is a population-based cohort study focusing on an area in northeastern Germany. Study design and sampling methods were described previously [ NEWBARK Lizard Jacks Slippers dh31t2
]. 8,826 individuals with an age of 20–79 years with German citizenship and main residency in the study area were invited. 4,420 individuals (2,145 men) participated (response 50.1%) in baseline examinations of SHIP-TREND. Examinations were conducted between September 2008 and September 2012. A subsample of 1001 subjects was used for this study. Of these subjects we excluded men or women with the following conditions (overlap exists): self-reported bilateral oophorectomy (n = 29), intake of testosterone 5a-reductase inhibitors (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification: G04CB; n = 1) or sex hormone antagonists (ATC L02B; n = 4) and missing covariate or outcome data (n = 2). Furthermore, all subjects with missing sex hormone, leptin or anthropometric measurements were excluded resulting in different study populations ranging from 781 to 957 subjects ( Pura Lopez High heeled boots aurora dZAaMX
). All participants gave informed written consent prior to examination. This study protocol complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Greifswald.

The signs and symptoms of low blood sugar can vary depending on the person and how quickly the level falls. Also, problems other than hypoglycemia or diabetes can cause similar symptoms.

Warning signs of low blood sugar include:

Kidswho have nocturnal hypoglycemia may have bouts of crying, nightmares, or night sweats (with damp sheets and/or pajamas), and might wake up groggy or with a headache.

When blood sugar levels fall too low, the body releases the hormone adrenaline, which helps get stored glucose into the bloodstream quickly. Paleness, sweating, shakiness, and increased heart rate are early warning signs of this adrenaline release.

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The only way to know for sure if your child has low blood sugar levels is to test them.

Sometimes a child with diabetes may have symptoms of low blood sugar, but the levels are not actually low. This is a called a false reaction . Adrenaline also can be released when blood sugar levels fall rapidly from a high level to a normal level. Testing blood sugar levels before giving treatment for hypoglycemia can help you identify false reactions.

false reaction

Also, some kids may learn to fake symptoms of low blood sugar to get a sugary treat or avoid something unpleasant. Again, checking the blood sugar level can confirm the presence of hypoglycemia.

It's important to discuss the signs and symptoms of low blood sugar with your child. Even younger kids who can't verbalize symptoms should learn how to alert their parents when they don't feel well. This will help kids make the connection between how they feeland the need for treatment. Kids also should know when and how to find an adult for help.

Some people with diabetes don't have or can't sense the early warning signs of low blood sugar, a condition known as hypoglycemic unawareness . They're at greater risk for not recognizing the need to get treatment for hypoglycemia promptly. This could lead to more serious symptoms, such as loss of consciousness or seizures, as their blood sugar falls.

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If you think your child is having trouble sensing low blood sugar, be sure to let the diabetes health care team know.


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